You donít need to list the
apparatus you intend to use because
you will have described its use clearly
in the method.
A blank results table should
be used to ensure that you have included
the range and extent of data that
you intend to collect.
Say how you will analyse the
data with detailed descriptions of
calculations, graphs and statistics.
Make it clear why you are using them
and how they will help you make your
Make a prediction and support
it with detailed scientific knowledge.
Try to include relevant information
from several areas of the specification.
This part of the method gains marks
for skill E as well as skill A.
Describe all the precautions
you took to ensure that your data
was reliable. Reliable means that
you have a high degree of confidence
that your data is consistent.
Make sure that you have enough,
reliable data to make a conclusion.
Record your data clearly so
that it can be understood. You should
be able to make the main conclusion
by looking at the table.
Column 1 has the independent
variable. The dependent variables
are placed to the right of this column.
Donít put calculations in
the table, show equations somewhere
else, do not produce pages of sums.
Draw the table with a pencil
and a ruler. If you use ICT, this
is no excuse for an untidy table.
Make sure that columns line up, and
borders are separated with lines.
Make sure that the table has
informative headings and units at
the top of the columns.
Process your results using
appropriate calculations to enable
you to make a conclusion.
Use an appropriate graph that
helps you analyse the pattern of your
results and make a conclusion supported
by the data.
The graph must be properly
constructed with the independent variable
on the X axis. Make proper use of
the paper by using appropriate scales.
Include your descriptive statistics
on the graph.
If you cannot control Excel
sufficiently well to produce an appropriate
graph, get your pencil and ruler out
and do it on graph paper. Excel does
not know any biology so do not ask
it to produce a trend line.
Identify regions on your graph
where something different is happening.
Make a clear conclusion that
is supported by the data and use the
data to back it up.
Describe and explain all the
patterns shown by the data using your
scientific knowledge. You should give
the bigger picture by considering
a wide range of background information
in your explanations.
Compare the outcome of the
investigation with patterns that you
might have expected using a secondary
Use a statistical test to
support your conclusion or to reject
your hypothesis. Include this after
the other conclusions so that you
can make a final conclusion about
your confidence in the data and your
Describe the limitations of
the method and the apparatus. These
are things that might make the data
unreliable or invalid.
Do not mention mistakes that
you think you made.
Do not blame your teachers
or the weather or your headache.
Look critically at the data
you collected and assess its reliability.
Use the limitations you have described
to explain why the data may not be
precise or correct.
Say how the data has been
affected by the limitations. Try to
say if the real answer is likely to
be higher or lower than your data
suggests and by how much.
Decide if you can be certain
about your conclusion given the limitations
in the apparatus, techniques and data
you have described. Describe how the
conclusion has been affected by these
Be prepared to say that you
cannot make a safe conclusion and
- Synthesis of principles and concepts
Brainstorm any biological
principles and concepts that are linked
to the investigation.
Include all the principles
and concepts linked to your investigation
in your report and explain why they
Check your spelling and make
sure that you have used proper terms
for the processes in the report.
4. Think about including explanations
that include the physical factors on
the shore, the biological factors, sources
of the variation you discovered, natural
selection and adaptations of the limpets.